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Lee Fesperman

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For Java developers, Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is the only standard interface to Database Management Systems (DBMSs). As JDBC has evolved, the number of ways to connect have increased. JDBC 2 added capabilities for compatibility with J2EE. JDBC 3 generalized the structure to support Enterprise Information Systems (EISs) other than DBMSs, including messaging services. JDBC 3 introduced J2EE Connector Architecture (JCA). The initial release of JCA (1.0) standardized interfaces to DBMSs for Application Servers. With JCA, Application Servers can access a variety of DBMSs without DBMS-specific coding. JCA also provides local and distributed transaction control, generic deployment capabilities and access outside of DBMSs to general EISs. Sun released the final spec on JCA 1.5 in Nov., '03. While adoption of 1.5 has been slow, it does round out JCA to a complete fa... (more)